The Electric Motorcycle, Part 5 Battery development and manufacturing, plus …
News from Cycleworld:

When fuel and air burn inside the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine, the energy being released comes from the electronic bonds that bind atoms together to form molecules. The bond energy of unburned hydrocarbon fuel and diatomic oxygen from the air is higher than that of the products of complete combustion, which are water and carbon dioxide. Upon combustion, this energy difference appears (mainly) as heat. This heat raises the pressure of the gases in the cylinder, driving the piston downward to turn the engine’s crankshaft.

The very same kind of electronic bond energy stores and delivers the power we take from batteries. A battery at its simplest consists of a positive and a negative electrode, exposed to an electrolyte. In the case of today’s powerful Lithium-ion batteries, the electrolyte consists of Lithium salts dissolved in an organic liquid. Just as table salt—sodium chloride or NaCl—separates into oppositely charged sodium and chlorine ions when dissolved in water, so the Lithium salts release Li+ ions into solution.

During charging, negative electrons are supplied by the charger to the battery’s negative electrode (anode). Because the electrolyte is…………… continues on Cycleworld

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Vehicle fees to increase
News from Chambersburg Public Opinion:

By Flint McColgan @flintmccolgan on Twitter

Pennsylvania drivers can expect to see changes in what they pay at the pump, but by July they should also expect to see changes to what they pay in vehicle fees.

The Comprehensive Transportation Funding Plan, or Act 89, was signed into law by Gov. Tom Corbett back in 2013 and provides for about $ 2.3 billion over five years for infrastructure projects throughout the state. That funding comes from small motor vehicle fee increases which will be unrolled throughout the year.

The most visible changes — like increases to driver licenses and vehicle registration and registration renewal — won’t be coming until July. Other fee adjustments such as those allowing for higher prices at the gas pump, took effect on New Year’s Day.

More immediate changes include those outside the realm of a normal Department of Motor Vehicles office visit, such as those that will affect people who have run into a bit of trouble:

• A vehicle owner can pay a $ 500 civil penalty once in a 12-month period instead of serving a registration suspension.

• The fee to restore a suspended non-commercial vehicle operating privilege jumped to $ 70 from t…………… continues on Chambersburg Public Opinion

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